Despite high incidence rates, little information is available on the burden of illness of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in Europe. A review of the available data was performed to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs associated with CRBSIs during intensive care unit (ICU) stays in four European countries (France, Germany, Italy and the UK). Based on these data we have estimated the CRBSI-related mortality and the annual costs associated with CRBSIs in the aforementioned countries. Results show large variation between countries: 1.12-4.2 CRBSI per 1000 catheter days, 8400-14,400 CRBSIs episodes per year, 1000-1584 deaths per year, 15,960-201,600 ICU days caused by CRBSIs and euro35.9 to euro163.9 million associated costs. Discrepancies are mainly explained by the heterogeneous quality of epidemiological studies, as well as the variety of national clinical practices.