The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of concomitant administration of alprazolam and fluoxetine were studied in this double-blind parallel study in 80 healthy, male volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Drug treatments consisted of 4-day regimens of 1 mg alprazolam four times daily, 60 mg fluoxetine every morning, 1 mg alprazolam four times daily and 60 mg fluoxetine every morning, and placebo four times daily. Psychomotor performance, mood status, and degree of sedation were evaluated at designated times. Combined administration of alprazolam and fluoxetine resulted in an approximate 30% increase in plasma alprazolam concentrations relative to plasma concentrations following the administration of alprazolam alone. There were no significant differences in fluoxetine or norfluoxetine plasma concentrations between the alprazolam/fluoxetine and fluoxetine treatments. Psychomotor decrements increased when fluoxetine was administered with alprazolam relative to alprazolam administration alone. Psychomotor performance of the fluoxetine treatment group was not significantly different from that of the placebo group. No significant changes were observed in mood status, and sedation was minimal in all treatment groups. As when any two psychoactive drugs are administered together, increased patient monitoring and patient education is recommended when alprazolam and fluoxetine are prescribed concurrently.