The Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can invade and persistently infect its hosts' connective tissues. We now demonstrate that B. burgdorferi adheres to the extracellular matrix component laminin. The surface-exposed outer-membrane protein ErpX was identified as having affinity for laminin, and is the first laminin-binding protein to be identified in a Lyme disease spirochaete. The adhesive domain of ErpX was shown to be contained within a small, unstructured hydrophilic segment at the protein's centre. The sequence of that domain is distinct from any previously identified bacterial laminin adhesin, suggesting a unique mode of laminin binding.