Objective: To evaluate a single center's 10-year experience with emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) in 102 patients with ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (RAAA).
Methods: Data from 102 patients (mean age, 73 +/- 9 years) with RAAA treated by eEVAR from January 1998 to April 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. From January 2000, all patients were treated according to an intention-to-treat protocol. The only exclusion criterion was unsuitable anatomy. 31/102 patients had moderate shock and 14/102 patients had severe shock with a systolic blood pressure <70 mm Hg or <50 mm Hg, respectively. 71/102 procedures were carried out under local anesthesia. Endograft types used were mainly bifurcated (92/102). Open abdomen treatment (OAT) because of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was used when signs of organ failure occurred and/or bladder pressure rose >20 mm Hg.
Results: The 30-day mortality for eEVAR was 13% (13/102). Technical success (defined as successful deployment of the endograft, absence of extravasation in the postprocedural contrast enhanced CT scan and hemodynamic stabilization) was 99% (101/102). Nineteen unstable patients (19%) required transfemoral supraceliac aortic balloon occlusion. ACS was detected and treated by OAT in 20 patients (20%). 16 type I, 26 type II and 1 type III endoleaks were detected on postoperative CT examination. Two patients had a combined type I and II endoleak. 11 patients were retreated for immediate correction of 10 type I and 2 type II endoleaks. 6 type I and 1 type III low-flow endoleaks were observed and resolved spontaneously within 30 days. Major 30-day morbidity was 35%.
Conclusion: In this 102 patient contemporary series of eEVAR for RAAA, endografting proved to be safe with a 30-day mortality of 13%. Key components of this favorable outcome result were adequate preoperative diagnostic imaging, hypotensive hemostasis, selective transfemoral supraceliac aortic balloon occlusion, predominantly local anesthesia, detection and treatment of ACS, and attention to logistics. Widespread adoption of these treatment components is recommended.