Fifty patients with esophageal cancer proved by means of biopsy underwent preoperative staging with endoscopic ultrasonography (US); in 42 of the patients, dynamic CT of the chest and abdomen was also performed. All results were compared with the findings at pathologic examination of resected specimens. In staging the depth of tumor growth, endoscopic US was significantly more accurate (46 of 50 tumors [92%]) than CT (25 of 42 tumors [60%]) (P less than .0003). In staging regional lymph nodes, it was more accurate (44 of 50 patients [88%]) than CT (31 of 42 patients [74%]), but this was not statistically significant. In staging distant metastases, however, CT was more accurate (38 of 42 patients [90%]) than endoscopic US (35 of 50 patients [70%]) (P less than .016). The highest concordance with surgical and pathologic findings in overall stage (36 of 42 tumors [86%]) occurred with the combined use of CT and endoscopic US, which was significantly more accurate than use of CT alone (27 of 42 tumors [64%]) (P less than .008).