It is evident that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the most serious public health issues in decades. HIV infection compromises cell-mediated immunity which ultimately may result in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS, to date, remains an incurable and progressively fatal disorder. HIV infection is spreading beyond the originally identified high-prevalence groups of gay/bisexual males, intravenous drug abusers, and recipients of infected blood or blood products. Today, more and more heterosexual males, women, adolescents, and children have been infected with this lethal virus. This report addresses some of the psychiatric complications associated with HIV infection and discusses the diagnostic and clinical management challenges that clinicians must face as they deal with the increasing population of HIV-infected patients. Depression, anxiety, psychosis, delirium, and dementia are commonly encountered disorders associated with HIV spectrum disorders which must be accurately identified and can be effectively managed with psychopharmacological interventions.