Registered dietitians (RDs) have a defined and unique role in care for patients with diabetes that differs depending on whether the service is for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) or part of a diabetes self-management training (DSMT) program (DSMT and diabetes self-management education [DSME] are used interchangeably in this article). The purpose of this article is to describe the current regulatory and practice framework that supports nutrition care under Medicare Part B for people with diabetes. A description of MNT and DSMT provided under Medicare Part B is included. The role of RDs and other health care professionals involved as program instructors in DSMT programs is also addressed. Revisions to the National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education are discussed to clarify RDs' involvement in DSME programs.