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Review
, 123 (5), 1012-21

Update on Allergies in Pregnancy, Lactation, and Early Childhood

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Review

Update on Allergies in Pregnancy, Lactation, and Early Childhood

Isabella Pali-Schöll et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol.

Abstract

The factors responsible for the induction of allergic disease at an early age have not been completely identified. Therefore a major research focus is their identification to elaborate recommendations for prevention of sensitization in high-risk or atopic children. This review analyzes known or suspected reasons for sensitization in pregnant women and infants from both clinical and experimental animal studies. Recent studies and meta-analyses could not confirm the protective effect of an allergen-poor diet on the part of the mother during pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, the type of bottle feeding or the introduction of solid food into the child's diet might not significantly influence the development of atopy, allergy, or asthma in the child's life. Disappointingly, the few preventive measures remaining to reduce the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases in mother and child are the avoidance of smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation and the avoidance of the impairment of gastric function. Further studies are urgently needed to address the influence of certain foods and nutrients, as well as environmental factors, for prevention of allergic diseases in the low- or high-risk infant.

Figures

FIG 1
FIG 1
Risk factors for sensitization of mother and child can stem from the environment or be taken up through the diet (1 and 5). Maternofetal transfer can occur through the placenta (2) or during breast-feeding (4). The mode of delivery (3) might additionally play an important role for the immune status of the child.

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