Increasing evidence supports the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of organs on subsequent ischemia. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of IPC of the pancreas on islet cell recovery after cold preservation using a rat model. The pancreas was deprived of perfusion (celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery occlusion) for 10 minutes followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion. Islet isolation was performed after 18 hours of cold ischemia. Glands undergoing IPC yielded significantly greater numbers of islets than controls. Following overnight culture, a significantly greater proportion of islets was recovered from IPC-treated pancreata. Microarray genomic analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed a significant differential expression of approximately 600 unique mRNA strands within IPC pancreata compared to only <100 unique mRNA strands within non-IPC pancreata (>2-fold change; P < .05). Proteomic analysis revealed significant differential expression of at least 5 proteins >1.5-fold change; P < .05) within the IPC vs control group. Our data indicated that IPC of the pancreas prior to cold preservation was associated with improved islet cell recovery after cold ischemia. IPC of the pancreas may represent a viable therapeutic intervention to increase islet transplantation success from a single donor and to maximize organ utilization.