Introduction: The impact of music therapy on dementia care for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well-recognized. Music alters the different components of the disease through sensory, cognitive, emotional, behavioral and social impacts. The academic aspect of music therapy in this area was based on the fact that music can alter the various components of the overall evolution of this disease. We found around 10 case studies presenting various results from receptive music therapy sessions on patients with Alzheimer's disease. The results of these studies point out the interest of music therapy in the multidisciplinary care of Alzheimer's disease and its related syndromes. It has been deemed useful for significantly reducing the medication given to AD patients. A music therapy protocol, specifically tailored to the patient's needs has been shown to significantly reduce anxiety, depression and aggressiveness in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This technique has also demonstrated its impact on helping AD patients recall their previous life experience.
Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the impact of music therapy on anxiety and depression at the early to moderate stage of Alzheimer's disease and on the main caregiver burden.
Method: Five outpatients suffering from early stage of Alzheimer's disease (MMS: 18-26) were prospectively included. They were living in Montpellier with a reliable caregiver. A weekly receptive music therapy session was delivered to patients over a 10-week period, according to the U method standardized protocol. This technique was based on the recommendations made by Gardner and Good relating to the importance given to an individualized choice of music. Instrumental tracks were selected from various music styles (classic, jazz, world music...) and were tailored to the patient's requirements. This individual session was always followed by an interview with the music therapist in order to allow the patient to express the emotions felt during the session and to stimulate the patient's cognitive functions by recalling memories and images from his past life experience. The main evaluation criterion was regular session attendance at the hospital. Secondary criteria were: anxiety score (Hamilton scale), depression score (Cornell scale) and the burden score felt by the main caregiver (Zarit scale). Evaluations took place at W1, W4 and W10. The score evolution on the Hamilton, Cornell and Zarit scales were tested using the Wilcoxon test on paired data. The significance threshold has conventionally been set at 5% for all tests used. The statistical analysis was done using the SAS software (8th version) (SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.; proc npar1way, proc univariate, proc freq). Alzheimer's disease is a recognized indication for music therapy. A simple oral consent was collected prior to the study inclusion.
Results: Five patients were included for a total of 44 sessions. The patients' regular attendance at the music therapy sessions showed its feasibility. Thanks to oral feedback, we were able to see that music therapy was very well-accepted both by patients and caregivers. After the sessions, all patients expressed a sensation of well-being and pleasure, such as: "Music made me feel better, I feel more relaxed", "I feel better", "I didn't know that music could have such an impact on me"... Other verbal comments were collected regarding the patients' previous life experience: "This music reminds me of my childhood", "I imagined myself dancing just like I used to in the old days", "This reminds me of my trip to Italy with my children"... The level of anxiety (Hamilton scale) dropped significantly from 9.4 (+/-2.2) to 3.4 (+/-2.6) between the first session and the fourth session (P<0.004). The differences observed between W4-W10 and W1-W10 were close to the threshold of significance due to a major drop in the anxiety level starting at W4 (P=NS). On the Cornell scale, the depression level dropped significantly from 10.8 (+/-5.3) to 2.2 (+/-1.9) between the first session and the fourth session (P<0.01). The differences observed between W4-W10 and W1-W10 were not significant (P=NS). The weight of the physical and emotional burden experienced by the main caregiver (Zarit scale) fell significantly from 30.2 (+/-11.7) to 15.6 (+/-10.4) between W1-W4 (P<0.002). The differences observed between W4-W10 and W1-W10 were not significant (P=NS).
Discussion/conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility as well as the initial efficacy of music therapy in terms of its impact on the overall care for patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This easily applicable technique can be useful in treating anxiety and depression in a patient with Alzheimer's disease and also in relieving the emotional and physical burden experienced by the main caregiver.