Noonan syndrome cardiac defects are caused by PTPN11 acting in endocardium to enhance endocardial-mesenchymal transformation

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 24;106(12):4736-41. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810053106. Epub 2009 Feb 27.


Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common single-gene cause of congenital heart disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder that also features proportionate short stature, facial abnormalities, and an increased risk of myeloproliferative disease. Germline-activating mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause about half of NS cases; other causative alleles include KRAS, SOS1, and RAF1 mutants. We showed previously that knock-in mice bearing the NS mutant Ptpn11(D61G) on a mixed 129S4/SvJae X C57BL6/J background exhibit all major NS features, including a variety of cardiac defects, with variable penetrance. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NS cardiac defects and whether genetic background and/or the specific NS mutation contribute to the NS phenotype remained unclear. Here, using an inducible knock-in approach, we show that all cardiac defects in NS result from mutant Shp2 expression in the endocardium, not in the myocardium or neural crest. Furthermore, the penetrance of NS defects is affected by genetic background and the specific Ptpn11 allele. Finally, ex vivo assays and pharmacological approaches show that NS mutants cause cardiac valve defects by increasing Erk MAPK activation, probably downstream of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases, extending the interval during which cardiac endocardial cells undergo endocardial-mesenchymal transformation. Our data provide a mechanistic underpinning for the cardiac defects in this disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Endocardial Cushions / enzymology
  • Endocardial Cushions / pathology
  • Endocardium / enzymology*
  • Endocardium / pathology*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Gene Knock-In Techniques
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / enzymology*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology
  • Heart Valves / abnormalities
  • Heart Valves / embryology
  • Heart Valves / enzymology
  • Mesoderm / enzymology*
  • Mesoderm / pathology*
  • Mice
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Noonan Syndrome / enzymology*
  • Organogenesis
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11 / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
  • Ptpn11 protein, mouse