Health examinations were performed in 147 people living in a cadmium-polluted area, Kosaka Town, Japan. 33 of 147 residents had some indications of proximal tubular dysfunction, such as renal glucosuria, tubular proteinuria, and aminoaciduria, and 10 of them were diagnosed as having multiple proximal tubular dysfunctions. Detailed examinations revealed that none of the cases had any causal diseases other than chronic cadmium poisoning. Residents' mean cadmium intake and mean urinary cadmium concentration were over 3 times as high as those in control areas. From these findings, renal lesions identified in these residents were concluded as chronic cadmium poisoning induced by environmental cadmium pollution.