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, 17 (10), 1260-73

Y-chromosome Distribution Within the Geo-Linguistic Landscape of Northwestern Russia

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Y-chromosome Distribution Within the Geo-Linguistic Landscape of Northwestern Russia

Sheyla Mirabal et al. Eur J Hum Genet.

Abstract

Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18,000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9+/-4.1 instead of 5.2+/-2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Haplogroup phylogeography throughout Northwestern Russia. Y-Chromosome markers typed hierarchically along with current haplogroup denominations and numbers of individuals belonging to each haplogroup.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Haplogroup distributions throughout Central Eurasia. Population names and abbreviations: KAB (Kabardinians), LEZ (Lezgi), OSA (Ossetians Ardon), OSD (Ossetians Digora), ARM (Armenia), AZE (Azerbaijan), GEO (Georgia), IRQ (Iraq), LEB (Lebanon), SYR (Syria), TUR (Turkey), NIR (North Iran), SIR (South Iran), NPA (North Pakistan), SPA (South Pakistan), KAZ (Kazakhstan), TUK (Turkmenistan), UZB (Uzbekistan), BEL (Belarus), EST (Estonia), FIN (Finland), LAT (Latvia), LIT (Lithuania), POL (Poland), ROM (Romania), SLO (Slovakia), UKR (Ukraine), ARK (Arkhangelski), BEG (Belgorod), KRA (Krasnoborsk), KUR (Kursk), LIV (Livni), MEZ (Mezen), OST (Ostrov), PIN (Pinega), ROS (Roslavl), TVE (Tver), UNZ (Unzha), VOL (Vologda), KOI (Komi Izhemski), KOP (Komi Priluzski), MAR (Mari), EVE (Evenks), KAK (Khakassians), KHA (Khanty), and TUV (Tuvinians).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Correspondence Analysis (CA) based on major Y-chromosome haplogroup bifurcations (A–R).
Figure 4
Figure 4
NETWORK Projections for all populations analyzed. (a) R1a1 using 7 Y-STR loci; (b) N1c using 6 Y-STR loci; and (c) N1b using 6 Y-STR loci.

Comment in

  • On the origin of Y-chromosome haplogroup N1b.
    Malyarchuk B, Derenko M. Malyarchuk B, et al. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Dec;17(12):1540-1; author reply 1541-3. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.100. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009. PMID: 19536171 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

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