Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular geometry in a group of 293 hypertensive patients with stage 2-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), compared with 289 essential hypertensive patients with normal renal function.
Methods: All patients underwent echocardiographic examination. Patients on stage 1 CKD, dialysis treatment, or with cardiovascular diseases were excluded.
Results: LVH was observed in 47.1% of patients with CKD and in 31.14% of essential hypertensive patients (P < 0.0001). We found increasingly higher left ventricular diameters, thicknesses, and mass from stage 2 to 5 CKD. Distribution of concentric and eccentric LVH was not different between the two groups. However, after introducing mixed hypertrophy, the difference between the two groups group was disclosed (P = 0.027). The prevalence of inappropriate left ventricular mass was 52.6% in patients with CKD vs. 30.5% in essential hypertensive patients (P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis confirmed that the association between renal function and left ventricular mass (beta -0.287; P < 0.0001) was independent by potential confounders. From stage 4 to 5, the significant increase of left ventricular mass was due to growth in posterior wall thickness rather than end-diastolic diameter. Diastolic function was significantly worse in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages.
Conclusion: Our study confirms that LVH is highly prevalent in patients with CKD; in this population, LVH is often inappropriate and characterized by the simultaneous increase of wall thicknesses and diameters.