The diversity of costimulatory and inhibitory receptor pathways and the regulation of antiviral T cell responses

Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Apr;21(2):179-86. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2009.01.010. Epub 2009 Mar 4.


T cell responses are regulated by integrating positive and negative signals from costimulatory and inhibitory receptors. While the function of specific T cell costimulatory molecules during infections has been appreciated for some time, recent observations have now revealed a crucial role for inhibitory receptors in regulating T cell responses to pathogens, especially during chronic infections. A key emerging principle is that there is considerable diversity in the number and type of inhibitory receptors that can be expressed by T cells during both acute and chronic infections. These distinct inhibitory pathways appear to cooperate in regulating T cell function, could have distinct mechanisms of action, and are likely to provide novel therapeutic targets during persisting infections and other diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Models, Immunological
  • Receptors, Immunologic / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / cytology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 / immunology
  • Virus Diseases / immunology


  • CD28 Antigens
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7