Endogenous hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation contributes to the control of food intake by mediating gastric satiation signaling

Endocrinology. 2009 Jun;150(6):2654-9. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-1479. Epub 2009 Mar 5.


Exogenous activation of central nervous system glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces food intake. Experiments addressed whether endogenous central GLP-1R activity is involved in the control of normal feeding and examined which gastrointestinal satiation signals contribute to this control. Given that nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons are the source of central GLP-1, that caudal brainstem circuits mediate the intake suppression triggered by exogenous hindbrain GLP-1R activation, and that these neurons process gastrointestinal vagal signals, the role of endogenous hindbrain GLP-1R activation to intake control was the focus of the analysis. Food intake increased with GLP-1R antagonist [Exendin-(9-39) (Ex-9)] [10 microg, fourth intracerebroventricular (icv)] delivery to overnight food-deprived rats after ingestion of 9 ml Ensure diet. Direct medial NTS injection of a ventricle subthreshold dose (1.0 microg) of Ex-9 increased food intake and established the contribution of this GLP-1R population to the effect observed with ventricular administration. To determine whether satiation signals of gastric vs. intestinal origin drive the GLP-1R-mediated NTS effect on food intake, two experiments were performed in overnight-fasted rats. In one, Ensure was infused intraduodenally (0.4 ml/min for 20 min); in another, the stomach was distended (9 ml SILASTIC brand balloon) for 15 min before fourth icv Ex-9. The intake suppression by duodenal nutrient infusion was not affected by GLP-1R blockade, but the feeding suppression after gastric distension was significantly attenuated by fourth icv Ex-9. We conclude that endogenous NTS GLP-1R activation driven by gastric satiation signals contributes to the control of normal feeding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Catheterization
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Eating / physiology*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Injections, Intraventricular
  • Male
  • Models, Animal
  • Peptide Fragments / administration & dosage
  • Peptide Fragments / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Glucagon / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Glucagon / metabolism*
  • Rhombencephalon / metabolism*
  • Satiation / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Solitary Nucleus / metabolism
  • Stomach / physiology*


  • Glp1r protein, rat
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Receptors, Glucagon
  • exendin (9-39)
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1