Rapid myeloid cell transcriptional and proteomic responses to periodontopathogenic Porphyromonas gingivalis

Am J Pathol. 2009 Apr;174(4):1400-14. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080677. Epub 2009 Mar 5.


Long-lived monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are Toll-like receptor-expressing, antigen-presenting cells derived from a common myeloid lineage that play key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Based on immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of inflamed tissues from patients with chronic destructive periodontal disease, these cells, found in the inflammatory infiltrate, may drive the progressive periodontal pathogenesis. To investigate early transcriptional signatures and subsequent proteomic responses to the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, donor-matched human blood monocytes, differentiated DCs, and macrophages were exposed to P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gene expression levels were measured by oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition to striking differences in constitutive transcriptional profiles between these myeloid populations, we identify a P. gingivalis LPS-inducible convergent, transcriptional core response of more than 400 annotated genes/ESTs among these populations, reflected by a shared, but quantitatively distinct, proteomic response. Nonetheless, clear differences emerged between the monocytes, DCs, and macrophages. The finding that long-lived myeloid inflammatory cells, particularly DCs, rapidly and aggressively respond to P. gingivalis LPS by generating chemokines, proteases, and cytokines capable of driving T-helper cell lineage polarization without evidence of corresponding immunosuppressive pathways highlights their prominent role in host defense and progressive tissue pathogenesis. The shared, unique, and/or complementary transcriptional and proteomic profiles may frame the context of the host response to P. gingivalis, contributing to the destructive nature of periodontal inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bacteroidaceae Infections / genetics
  • Bacteroidaceae Infections / immunology*
  • Bacteroidaceae Infections / pathology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Myeloid Cells / immunology*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Periodontitis / immunology*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / immunology
  • Proteome
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Cytokines
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Proteome
  • Toll-Like Receptors