The strongest predictive factor for the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in myositis (IIM) patients is the presence of different antisynthetase antibodies. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics, radiological findings and therapeutic response between the anti-SS-A positive and negative antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) patients. A prospective study of 315 IIM patients was conducted including 27 anti-Jo-1 positive ASS patients. Mean disease duration was 46.6 (range 4-198) months. All patients fulfilled the classification criteria for IIM. All patients underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function tests and HRCT at he time of diagnosis and 6 months after the immunosuppressive therapy. Routine laboratory tests, RF, ANA, anti-ENA, anti-SS-A, anti-histidyl-transfer RNA antibody (Jo-1) measurements were performed in all patients. ILD was found to be present in 70.4% of ASS patients. The anti-SS-A negative ASS group had a more frequent association with alveolitis and responded well to immunosuppressive therapy (p < 0.05). HRCT scan showed more fibrosis in the SS-A positive group. 15.8% of patients died due to pulmonary or cardiac complications. In conclusion, coexistence of anti-SS-A and anti-Jo-1 antibody may be a good predictor for a more coarse and severe ILD in IIM patients who require a more aggressive approach in therapy.