6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Apr 24;382(1):134-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.160. Epub 2009 Mar 4.


Inflammation is involved in numerous diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases and the development of cancer. Many plants possess a variety of biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, our understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol is very limited. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as a model of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-gingerol, which contains phenolic structure. We found that 6-gingerol exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect. 6-Gingerol could decrease inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-alpha expression through suppression of I-kappaB alpha phosphorylation, NF-kappaB nuclear activation and PKC-alpha translocation, which in turn inhibits Ca(2+) mobilization and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that 6-gingerol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-kappaB and PKC signaling, and may be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of cancer or inflammatory diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Catechols / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Catechols
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • gingerol
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha