Introduction: This systematic review was undertaken to discuss factors that affect mini-implants as direct and indirect orthodontic anchorage.
Methods: The data were collected from electronic databases (Medline [Entrez PubMed], Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and All Evidence Based Medicine Reviews). Randomized clinical trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, and clinical trials concerning the properties, affective factors, and requirements of mini-implants were considered. The titles and abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were collected by consensus, and the original articles were retrieved and evaluated with a methodologic checklist. A hand search of key orthodontic journals was performed to identify recent unindexed literature.
Results: The search strategy resulted in 596 articles. By screening titles and abstracts, 126 articles were identified. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 16 articles remained. The analyzed results of the literature were divided into 2 topics: placement-related and loading-related factors.
Conclusions: Mini-implants are effective as anchorage, and their success depends on proper initial mechanical stability and loading quality and quantity.