Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus

J Diabetes Complications. Mar-Apr 2010;24(2):109-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2009.01.006. Epub 2009 Mar 6.


Fifty-six pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 42 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women between 26 and 36 gestational weeks were included in the study prospectively. The body fat percentage (BFP) was calculated using the Siri formula from skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements. Both groups were comparable for gestational age, height, weight, and body mass index (P>.05). Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method was significantly higher in GDM patients compared to their NGT weight-matched control group. In contrast, the insulin sensitivity calculated from quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI-IS) equation was significantly lower in GDM group. Calculated lean body mass was found to be similar in between both groups. Body fat percentage derived from SFT parameters was significantly higher in women with GDM. Women with GDM had significantly higher levels of serum insulin and leptin concentrations when compared with the NGT group. All SFT measurements were higher in GDM group when compared to those in NGT women. We did not find any correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance; we found negative correlation between leptin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we observed that leptin may contribute development of GDM by decreasing insulin sensitivity but not increasing insulin resistance. Also, we observed that the BFP estimated by the Siri formula from SFT measurements correlated significantly with HOMA-IR and QUICKI-IS and leptin concentrations in pregnant women. We suggest that by simply evaluating SFT, we may hold a view about BFP and leptin concentrations and insulin sensitivity in pregnant women.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood
  • Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Leptin / blood*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Leptin