Airway hypersensitivity is a common pathophysiological feature in various airway inflammatory diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor (TRPV1) plays an important part in the manifestation of various symptoms of airway hypersensitivity. This mini-review focuses on recent studies that have revealed several potential contributing factors to the increase in TRPV1 sensitivity in pulmonary sensory neurons during airway inflammatory reaction. In addition, chronic allergic airway inflammation induces a pronounced overexpression of TRPV1 in neurofilament-positive pulmonary sensory neurons in nodose ganglia. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the increase in sensitivity and/or expression of TRPV1 during acute and chronic airway inflammation should generate the necessary information for developing effective therapeutic interventions to alleviate airway hypersensitivity.