Violence during pregnancy in Jordan: its prevalence and associated risk and protective factors

Violence Against Women. 2009 Jun;15(6):720-35. doi: 10.1177/1077801209332191. Epub 2009 Mar 5.


This study estimates the lifetime prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy and examines risk and protective factors among women (N = 390) attending reproductive health clinics in Jordan. Approximately 15% reported physical violence during pregnancy. The husband was the sole perpetrator in 83% of the cases. A high frequency of quarreling, the husband's use of alcohol, attitudes supportive of a woman's duty to obey her husband, infrequent communication between the respondent and her family, and exposure to violence as a child increased the risk of violence. Consanguinity (marriage to a blood relative) and higher education levels were protective against violence during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Family Characteristics / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Jordan / epidemiology
  • Maternal Welfare / ethnology*
  • Maternal Welfare / statistics & numerical data
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Complications / ethnology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment / statistics & numerical data
  • Social Values / ethnology
  • Spouse Abuse / ethnology*
  • Spouse Abuse / prevention & control
  • Spouse Abuse / statistics & numerical data
  • Women's Health / ethnology
  • Young Adult