In this review, we present recent insights on chronic heart failure (CHF) and the potential role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitrosative stress in the progression of this disease process. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a consequence of aerobic metabolism. Under physiologic conditions, their unfavourable effect in causing oxidative damage is counteracted by antioxidants. An imbalance in favour of oxidants leads to oxidative stress, and contributes to myocyte apoptosis, direct negative inotropic effects, and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Together, these effects lead to impaired vasodilatation of the coronary, pulmonary and peripheral vascular beds. In patients with moderate to severe forms of CHF, TNF-alpha leads to the formation of nitrotyrosine and consumption of nitric oxide by virtue of activation of myeloperoxidase. Further studies are required to better elucidate the complex interaction of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation in CHF. Such insights would likely lead to development of better strategies for the assessment of the disease severity by monitoring of new bio-humoral indices and better treatment approaches.