We examined the role of Tollip in the hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 2 weeks and age-matched sham surgical operated mice served as control. TAC significantly reduced the association of Tollip with IRAK-1 by 66.4 percent and increased NF-kappaB binding activity by 86.5 percent and the levels of phospho-p38 by 114.6 percent in the myocardium compared with sham control, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that IL-1beta stimulation also significantly reduced the association of Tollip with IRAK-1 and increased NF-kappaB binding activity in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Tollip overexpression by transfection of cardiac myocytes significantly attenuated the IL-1beta-induced hypertrophic response of cardiac myocytes as evidenced by reduced cell size (16.4 percent) and decreased ANP expression (33.3 percent). Overexpression of Tollip also reduced NF-kappaB binding activity by 30.7 percent and phospho-p38 by 47.1 percent, respectively. The results suggest that Tollip could be a negative regulator during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The negative regulation of cardiac hypertrophy by Tollip may involve downregulation of the MyD88-dependent NF-kappaB activation pathway.