MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by imperfectly base pairing to the 3'-untranslated region of their target mRNAs, leading to mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. The emerging field of miRNA biology has begun to unravel roles for these regulatory molecules in a variety of biological processes. This review concentrates on the roles of miRNAs in skeletogenesis as well as in skeleton-related disease processes. Before describing these data, we present a brief review of the biogenesis and action of miRNAs, the approaches to miRNAs study, and miRNAs as global regulators of development. We finish by emphasizing that the study of the biological functions of miRNAs in skeletogenesis and dysplasia represents an entirely new avenue in the exploration of bone and cartilage biology, and large gaps remain in our knowledge of miRNAs in skeletogenesis in vivo and in our knowledge of the molecular events underlying miRNA-mediated musculoskeletal disorders.