Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) as possible bio-indicator for the assessment of heavy metals in the environment of Bursa, Turkey

Environ Monit Assess. 2010 Apr;163(1-4):105-13. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0820-1. Epub 2009 Mar 10.


In this study, we determined the heavy metal content (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the soil surrounding the roots and different organs of Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae), which is endemic to Uludağ Mountain, Bursa, Turkey. Plant samples were collected from roadsides, and heavy metal accumulation capabilities were tested. This is one of the pioneer species of ruderal plant communities on roadsides, building sites, rubbish dumps, etc. Different organs of plant samples (roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) and their soils were analyzed by inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy for their heavy metal contents. Some of the analyzed heavy metals (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) were usually increased depending on the traffic in the sample sites, and this variation was also reflected in heavy metal content of plant samples. Our results show that this plant can be used as a bio-indicator species in the monitoring of increased Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) in the environment. We also concluded that V. bombyciferum have the capability of Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) accumulation.

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Metals, Heavy / metabolism*
  • Turkey
  • Vehicle Emissions
  • Verbascum / metabolism*


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Vehicle Emissions