Background and purpose: Fluid consumption has been demonstrated to influence kidney stone formation. Studies have shown that consumption of cola may be a risk factor for stone disease, while fluids containing citric acid may attenuate stone activity. Diet was not always controlled in these investigations, however. We undertook a study to determine the impact of three different fluids on urinary stone risk factors.
Subjects and methods: Six healthy nonstone-forming adults were placed on a standardized metabolic diet and consumed three different types of fluid during three 5-day periods. There was a 2-day washout between each sequence. The three fluids administered during these periods were Le Bleu water, caffeine-free Diet Coke, and Fresca (citrate containing). These two soda preparations were chosen to prevent the known increase in calcium excretion promoted by carbohydrates and caffeine. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected on days 4 and 5 of each sequence. The following urinary parameters were measured: Volume, calcium, oxalate, creatinine, uric acid, citrate, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, urea nitrogen, pH, and supersaturation indices. A paired t test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Urinary volumes were significantly higher and supersaturation of calcium oxalate significantly lower compared with a self-selected dietary regimen. A decrease in uric acid was also seen in the Fresca cohort. There were no statistically significant differences for any of the urinary parameters.
Conclusion: There is no increased risk or benefit to consuming Fresca or caffeine-free Diet Coke compared with Le Bleu bottled water with respect to stone formation.