Who has a clue to preventing the flu? Unravelling supply and demand effects on the take-up of influenza vaccinations

J Health Econ. 2009 May;28(3):704-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.01.005. Epub 2009 Feb 6.


Influenza is a serious disease, especially for older people, and incomplete vaccination take-up poses a major public health challenge. On both the side of physicians and patients, there could be promising channels for increasing immunization rates, but no attempt has yet been made to empirically unravel their respective influences. Using exclusion restrictions implied by an economic model of physician-patient interactions, our study quantifies the particular effects of supply and demand on influenza immunization. On the supply side, our estimates highlight the importance of physician agency and physician quality, while a patient's education and health behaviors are key demand side factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / statistics & numerical data
  • Influenza Vaccines / supply & distribution*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical


  • Influenza Vaccines