Objective: To compare the distribution of lipid and glucose abnormalities and altered fat distribution among vertically HIV-infected patients and controls.
Design: Cross-sectional multicenter study on HIV-infected (HIV-positive) patients, 7-24 years of age, stratified by Tanner stage and protease inhibitor use (protease inhibitor, n = 161 and non- protease inhibitor, n = 79) and seronegative controls (HIV-negative, n = 146).
Methods: Measurements included fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometry, and antiretroviral therapy and medical histories. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare distributions between HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups.
Results: Both HIV-positive groups had long exposures to antiretroviral therapy. Protease inhibitor and nonprotease inhibitor groups had similar current CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA, but the protease inhibitor group had lower nadir CD4 cell count, higher peak HIV-1 RNA, and more advanced Centers for Disease Control disease stage. In adjusted analyses, both HIV-positive groups had significantly lower mean Z scores for height, weight, BMI, and total and limb fat than the HIV-negative group. Mean triglycerides were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lower in both HIV-positive groups relative to the HIV-negative group. The protease inhibitor group also had significantly higher mean total, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mean fasting insulin was higher in both HIV-positive groups, and 2-h glucose and insulin were higher in the protease inhibitor group. Ritonavir was associated with increasing dyslipidemia and altered glucose metabolism.
Conclusion: In a large group of vertically HIV-infected children and youth with extensive antiretroviral therapy exposure, height, weight, and total and limb fat were lower than in controls. There was a high prevalence of lipid abnormalities among those on protease inhibitors and evidence of developing insulin resistance, factors that may accelerate lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease.