Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent in clinical trials for the treatment of arginine-auxotrophic tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and melanomas. The arcA gene encoding ADI was cloned from a recently isolated strain Pseudomonas plecoglossicida CGMCC2039. The nucleotide sequence of ADI comprises an ORF of 1,254 bp encoding 417 amino acids. The deduced ADI protein sequence has a calculated molecular weight of 46.5 kDa and shows 97% and 85% identity to ADIs from P. putida and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The arcA from P. plecoglossicida CGMCC2039 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with a N-terminal His6-tag, and purified to homogeneity. A molecular mass of approximate 49 kDa was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis and specific activity was determined to be 4.76 U/mg (pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C). In vivo activity study showed that the rADI could effectively inhibit H22 tumor growth at a total dose of 5 U/mouse over a 2-week dosing period.