In this article, the role of hypothermia and neuroprotection for neonatal encephalopathy will be discussed. The incidence of encephalopathy due to hypoxia ischemia as well as the pathophysiology will be presented. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in full-term neonates will be discussed. The current management of brain injury that occurs with hypoxia ischemia and the role of hypothermia in preventing brain injury in fetal and neonatal animal models will be reviewed. The current data from randomized control trials of hypothermia as neuroprotection for full-term infants will be presented along with the results of meta-analyses of these trials. Lastly, the status of ongoing neonatal hypothermia trials will be summarized.