Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: a community-based study

J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Sep;129(9):2136-41. doi: 10.1038/jid.2009.47. Epub 2009 Mar 12.


A cross-sectional, community-based study was performed to determine the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris in adolescents and of factors influencing the acne severity risk. The presence of acne was clinically determined and the secondary outcome measures of family acne history and the relation of acne to nutrition habits, emotional stress, menstruation, and smoking were recorded in a questionnaire. A representative sample of 1,002 pupils aged 16+/-0.9 years was enrolled. The overall acne prevalence was 93.3, 94.4% for boys and 92.0% for girls. Moderate to severe acne was observed in 14%. The prevalence of moderate to severe acne was 19.9% in pupils with and 9.8% in those without a family history of acne (P<0.0005; OR: 2.3). Acne severity risk increased with the number of family members with acne history. A mother with acne history influenced the severity of acne the most. Increasing pubertal age, seborrhea, the premenstrual phase, mental stress, and sweet and oily foods were recognized as risk factors for moderate to severe acne. In contrast, gender, spicy foods, and smoking were not associated with acne severity. In conclusion, acne is a common disorder in Iranian adolescents, with a low rate of moderate to severe acne. A genetic background is suggested, with mother's acne history being the most important prognostic factor. Skin quality and certain nutrition habits may affect acne severity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acne Vulgaris / epidemiology*
  • Acne Vulgaris / etiology
  • Acne Vulgaris / genetics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects