Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which rapidly leads to chronic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Currently, forced vital capacity (FVC) < 50% is considered as physiologic marker for admitting patients to Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) intervention, although it has been recently shown the median survival of patients with baseline FVC < 75% much shorter than median survival of patients with baseline FVC > 75%, independently by any treatment.
Aim: To assess the role of NPPV in improving outcome of ALS, a retrospective analysis was performed to investigate 1 year survival of ALS patients with FVC < 75% and nocturnal respiratory insufficiency, treated with NPPV, compared to a well-matched population of ALS patients, who refused or was intolerant to NPPV.
Methods: We investigated seventy-two consecutive ALS patients who underwent pulmonary function test. Forty-four presented a FVC > 75% and served as control group. Twenty-eight patients presented a FVC < 75% and showed, at polysomnography analysis, nocturnal respiratory insufficiency, requiring NPPV; sixteen were treated with NPPV, while twelve refused or were intolerant.
Results: Increased survival rate at 1 year in patients with FVC < 75% treated with NPPV, as compared to those who refused or could not tolerate NPPV (p = 0.02), was observed. The median rate of decline in FVC% was slower in NPPV patients than in patients who did not use NPPV (95% CI: 0.72 to 1.85; p < 0.0001).
Conclusion: This report demonstrates that early treatment with NPPV prolongs survival and reduces decline of FVC% in ALS.