Paternal control of embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1485-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1167784.


The YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway promotes elongation of the Arabidopsis zygote and development of its basal daughter cell into the extra-embryonic suspensor. Here, we show that the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/Pelle-like kinase gene SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) regulates this pathway through a previously unknown parent-of-origin effect. SSP transcripts are produced in mature pollen but do not appear to be translated. Instead, they are delivered via the sperm cells to the zygote and the endosperm, where SSP protein transiently accumulates. Ectopic expression of SSP protein in the leaf epidermis is sufficient to activate YDA-dependent signaling. We propose that SSP protein produced from paternal transcripts upon fertilization triggers zygotic YDA activity, providing an essential temporal cue for the regulation of the asymmetric first division.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Arabidopsis / embryology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Biocatalysis
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Cell Division
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genomic Imprinting
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases / chemistry
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases / genetics*
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases / metabolism*
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases / metabolism*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Mutation
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Pollen / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Seeds / growth & development
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases
  • Irak1 protein, mouse
  • SSP protein, Arabidopsis
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
  • YODA protein, Arabidopsis