Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Apr;7(4):263-73. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2109.


On the stage of bacterial signal transduction and regulation, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has long played the part of Sleeping Beauty. c-di-GMP was first described in 1987, but only recently was it recognized that the enzymes that 'make and break' it are not only ubiquitous in the bacterial world, but are found in many species in huge numbers. As a key player in the decision between the motile planktonic and sedentary biofilm-associated bacterial 'lifestyles', c-di-GMP binds to an unprecedented range of effector components and controls diverse targets, including transcription, the activities of enzymes and larger cellular structures. This Review focuses on emerging principles of c-di-GMP signalling using selected systems in different bacteria as examples.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction


  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases
  • Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases
  • diguanylate cyclase
  • Cyclic GMP