The principal soil fumigants and their order of discovery are carbon disulfide, chloropicrin, methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and methyl isothiocyanate. Biological activity of soil fumigants ranges from limited to broad spectrum. Fumigants diffuse through the continuous soil air space as gases. Physical and chemical characteristics determine diffusion rates, distribution between the soil air and moisture, and sorption onto and into the soil particles. The principal soil factors affecting the efficacy of each treatment are the size and continuity of air space, moisture, temperature, organic matter, and depth of placement. Application can be made overall with tractor injection or plow-sole, or as a row or bed treatment. Treatment for trees is best made in conjunction with tree site backhoeing.
Keywords: 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP); 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); application technology; backhoeing; chemical control; chloropicrin (Pic); ethylene dibromide (EDB); fumigant; fumigation depth; methyl bromide (MBr); methyl isothiocyanate (MIT); nematicide; soil fumigation.