Purpose: To assess the association of insomnia with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), work productivity, and activity impairment.
Methods: Data were obtained from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Subjects were assigned to the insomnia group (diagnosed insomnia experienced at least a few times a month) or the noninsomnia group (no insomnia or sleep symptoms). HRQOL was assessed using the short form 8 (SF-8) (mental and physical scores). The work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) assessed absenteeism (work time missed), presenteeism (impairment at work), work productivity loss (overall work impairment), and activity impairment. Linear regression models were used to control for potential confounders.
Results: A total of 19,711 adults were evaluated (5,161 insomnia, 14,550 noninsomnia). Subjects in the insomnia group had significantly lower SF-8 physical (-5.40) and mental (-4.39) scores and greater activity impairment scores (+18.04) than subjects in the noninsomnia group (P < 0.01 for all). Employed subjects in the insomnia group had greater absenteeism (+6.27), presenteeism (+13.20), and work productivity loss (+10.33) scores than those in the noninsomnia group (P < 0.01 for all).
Conclusions: Insomnia is significantly associated with poorer physical and mental quality of life and work productivity loss and activity impairment.