Silencing of PIKfyve, the sole enzyme for PtdIns(3,5)P(2) biosynthesis that controls proper endosome dynamics, inhibits retroviral replication. A novel PIKfyve-specific inhibitor YM201636 disrupts retroviral budding at 800 nM, suggesting its potential use as an antiretroviral therapeutic. Because PIKfyve is also required for optimal insulin activation of GLUT4 surface translocation and glucose influx, we tested the outcome of YM201636 application on insulin responsiveness in 3T3L1 adipocytes. YM201636 almost completely inhibited basal and insulin-activated 2-deoxyglucose uptake at doses as low as 160 nM, with IC(50)=54+/-4 nM for the net insulin response. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation was partially inhibited at substantially higher doses, comparable to those required for inhibition of insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt/PKB. In addition to PIKfyve, YM201636 also completely inhibited insulin-dependent activation of class IA PI 3-kinase. We suggest that apart from PIKfyve, there are at least two additional targets for YM201636 in the context of insulin signaling to GLUT4 and glucose uptake: the insulin-activated class IA PI 3-kinase and a here-unidentified high-affinity target responsible for the greater inhibition of glucose entry vs. GLUT4 translocation. The profound inhibition of the net insulin effect on glucose influx at YM201636 doses markedly lower than those required for efficient retroviral budding disruption warns of severe perturbations in glucose homeostasis associated with potential YM201636 use in antiretroviral therapy.