Human TRIM gene expression in response to interferons

PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4894. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004894. Epub 2009 Mar 17.


Background: Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of proteins that share a conserved tripartite architecture. The recent discovery of the anti-HIV activity of TRIM5alpha in primate cells has stimulated much interest in the potential role of TRIM proteins in antiviral activities and innate immunity.

Principal findings: To test if TRIM genes are up-regulated during antiviral immune responses, we performed a systematic analysis of TRIM gene expression in human primary lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in response to interferons (IFNs, type I and II) or following FcgammaR-mediated activation of macrophages. We found that 27 of the 72 human TRIM genes are sensitive to IFN. Our analysis identifies 9 additional TRIM genes that are up-regulated by IFNs, among which only 3 have previously been found to display an antiviral activity. Also, we found 2 TRIM proteins, TRIM9 and 54, to be specifically up-regulated in FcgammaR-activated macrophages.

Conclusions: Our results present the first comprehensive TRIM gene expression analysis in primary human immune cells, and suggest the involvement of additional TRIM proteins in regulating host antiviral activities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Interferons / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Phylogeny
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Membrane Proteins
  • TRIM protein, human
  • Interferons