Background: Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of proteins that share a conserved tripartite architecture. The recent discovery of the anti-HIV activity of TRIM5alpha in primate cells has stimulated much interest in the potential role of TRIM proteins in antiviral activities and innate immunity.
Principal findings: To test if TRIM genes are up-regulated during antiviral immune responses, we performed a systematic analysis of TRIM gene expression in human primary lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in response to interferons (IFNs, type I and II) or following FcgammaR-mediated activation of macrophages. We found that 27 of the 72 human TRIM genes are sensitive to IFN. Our analysis identifies 9 additional TRIM genes that are up-regulated by IFNs, among which only 3 have previously been found to display an antiviral activity. Also, we found 2 TRIM proteins, TRIM9 and 54, to be specifically up-regulated in FcgammaR-activated macrophages.
Conclusions: Our results present the first comprehensive TRIM gene expression analysis in primary human immune cells, and suggest the involvement of additional TRIM proteins in regulating host antiviral activities.