Inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutM, mutY, or mutT gene conferred a 2.4-, 17.2-, or 38.1-fold increase in spontaneous mutation frequency, respectively. Importantly, the mutY and mutT strains each displayed a robust H(2)O(2)-induced mutation frequency. In addition, the mutM, mutY, and mutT mutations severely sensitized P. aeruginosa to killing by H(2)O(2), suggesting that these gene products act to repair one or more cytotoxic lesions in P. aeruginosa. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a fragment of the rpoB gene from rifampicin resistant mutM-, mutY-, and, mutT-deficient strains was consistent with this conclusion. These findings are discussed in terms of possible roles for mutM, mutY, and mutT in contributing to survival and mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa colonizing the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.