Heat shock protein induction in fetal mouse brain as a measure of stress after whole of gestation exposure to mobile telephony radiofrequency fields

Pathology. 2009;41(3):276-9. doi: 10.1080/00313020902756261.


Aim: To determine whether whole of gestation exposure of fetal mouse brain to mobile telephone radiofrequency fields produces a stress response detectable by induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs).

Methods: Using a purpose-designed exposure system at 900 MHz, pregnant mice were given a single, far-field, whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg for 60 min/day from day 1 to day 19 of gestation. Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by restraint in the exposure module. Immediately prior to parturition on day 19, fetal brains were collected, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and paraffin-embedded. Three coronal sections encompassing a wide range of anatomical regions were cut from each brain and any stress response detected by immunostaining for HSP25, 32 and 70.

Results: There was no induction of HSP32 or 70 in any brains, while HSP25 expression was limited to two brainstem nuclei and occurred consistently in exposed and non-exposed brains.

Conclusion: Whole of gestation exposure of fetal mouse brains to mobile phone radiofrequency fields did not produce any stress response using HSPs as an immunohistochemical marker.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / radiation effects*
  • Cell Phone*
  • Female
  • Fetus
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / radiation effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / etiology*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*
  • Stress, Physiological / radiation effects


  • Heat-Shock Proteins