New material of the lobopodian Luolishania longicruris has been recovered from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, southwest China. The specimens throw new light on several morphological features of the species, including the paired antenniform outgrowths, eyes, head shield, setae and other cuticular projections, as well as the differentiated sclerites, appendages, claws, and lobopod interspaces. L. longicruris shows well developed tagmosis: a distinct head and a trunk divided into two sections. The new data allow a revised comparison with other lobopodians. Miraluolishania haikouensis Liu et al., 2004 is considered to be a junior synonym of L. longicruris Hou and Chen, 1989. Evidence from gut filling and specialized morphological characters indicates that L. longicruris may have had a filter feeding lifestyle. A new cladistic analysis suggests that fossil lobopodians are paraphyletic or even polyphyletic and L. longicruris may be an important representative of the stem lineage leading to arthropods.