Antiinflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activity of C-phycocyanin

Anesth Analg. 2009 Apr;108(4):1303-10. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318193e919.

Abstract

Background: C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein found in blue green algae, such as Spirulina platensis, is often used as a dietary nutritional supplement due to its various therapeutic values. In addition, the antiinflammatory activity of C-PC partly through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2) expression has been demonstrated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. However, whether C-PC also has antihyperalgesic activity in inflammatory nociception has not been investigated.

Methods: Using a carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia model, we evaluated the effect of C-PC on nociception by measuring paw withdrawal latency. To clarify the mechanisms involved, the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the formation of nitrate and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the rat paw were determined.

Results: Pre- or posttreatment with C-PC (30 or 50 mg/kg, IP) significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception and the induction of iNOS and COX-2 at the late phase, (4 h) accompanied by an inhibition of the formation of TNF-alpha, prostaglandin E(2), nitrate and myeloperoxidase activity.

Conclusions: Based on these results, it is suggested that the inhibition of NO and prostaglandin E(2) over-production through suppressing iNOS and COX-2 induction and attenuation of TNF-alpha formation and neutrophil infiltration into inflammatory sites by C-PC may contribute, at least in part, to its antihyperalgesic activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Carrageenan
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hot Temperature
  • Hyperalgesia / etiology
  • Hyperalgesia / metabolism
  • Hyperalgesia / prevention & control*
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Neutrophil Infiltration / drug effects
  • Nitrates / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Pain Measurement
  • Pain Threshold / drug effects
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phycocyanin / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reaction Time / drug effects
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Nitrates
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Phycocyanin
  • Interleukin-10
  • Carrageenan
  • Peroxidase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Ptgs2 protein, rat
  • Dinoprostone