ATP release from non-excitable cells

Purinergic Signal. 2009 Dec;5(4):433-46. doi: 10.1007/s11302-009-9146-2. Epub 2009 Mar 20.


All cells release nucleotides and are in one way or another involved in local autocrine and paracrine regulation of organ function via stimulation of purinergic receptors. Significant technical advances have been made in recent years to quantify more precisely resting and stimulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations in close proximity to the plasma membrane. These technical advances are reviewed here. However, the mechanisms by which cells release ATP continue to be enigmatic. The current state of knowledge on different suggested mechanisms is also reviewed. Current evidence suggests that two separate regulated modes of ATP release co-exist in non-excitable cells: (1) a conductive pore which in several systems has been found to be the channel pannexin 1 and (2) vesicular release. Modes of stimulation of ATP release are reviewed and indicate that both subtle mechanical stimulation and agonist-triggered release play pivotal roles. The mechano-sensor for ATP release is not yet defined.