Immunological and Inflammatory Functions of the interleukin-1 Family

Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:519-50. doi: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132612.

Abstract

More than any other cytokine family, the interleukin (IL)-1 family is closely linked to the innate immune response. This linkage became evident upon the discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-1 receptor type I is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Thus, fundamental inflammatory responses such as the induction of cyclooxygenase type 2, increased expression of adhesion molecules, or synthesis of nitric oxide are indistinguishable responses of both IL-1 and TLR ligands. Both families nonspecifically affect antigen recognition and lymphocyte function. IL-1beta is the most studied member of the IL-1 family because of its role in mediating autoinflammatory diseases. Although the TLR and IL-1 families evolved to assist in host defense against infection, unlike the TLR family, the IL-1 family also includes members that suppress inflammation, both specifically within the IL-1 family but also nonspecifically for TLR ligands and the innate immune response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / immunology
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Caspase 1 / immunology
  • Caspase 1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1 / genetics
  • Interleukin-1 / immunology*
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / immunology*
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2 / immunology
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism

Substances

  • Carrier Proteins
  • Interleukin-1
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
  • NLRP3 protein, human
  • P2RX7 protein, human
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Caspase 1