The short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows extremely short captive life span and accelerated expression of age markers, making it an interesting model system to investigate the effects of experimental manipulations on longevity and age-related pathologies. Here, we tested the effects of dietary restriction (DR) on mortality and age-related markers in N. furzeri. DR was induced by every other day feeding and the treatment was performed both in an inbred laboratory line and a longer-lived wild-derived line. In the inbred laboratory line, DR reduced age-related risk and prolonged maximum life span. In the wild-derived line, DR induced early mortality, did not reduce general age-related risk and caused a small but significant extension of maximum life span. Analysis of age-dependent mortality revealed that DR reduced demographic rate of aging, but increased baseline mortality in the wild-derived strain. In both inbred- and wild-derived lines, DR prevented the expression of the age markers lipofuscin in the liver and Fluoro-Jade B (neurodegeneration) in the brain. DR also improved performance in a learning test based on conditioning (active avoidance in a shuttle box). Finally, DR induced a paradoxical up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain.