Aim: The aim of this randomized-controlled clinical study was to examine stability changes of palatal implants with chemically modified sandblasted/acid-etched (modSLA) titanium surface compared with a standard SLA surface, during the early stages of bone healing.
Materials and methods: Forty adult volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to the test group (modSLA surface) and to the control group (SLA surface). The test and control implants had the same microscopic and macroscopic topography, but differed in surface chemistry. To document implant stability changes resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed at implant insertion, at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 70 and 84 days thereafter. RFA values were expressed as an implant stability quotient (ISQ).
Results: Immediately after implant installation, the ISQ values for both surfaces tested were not significantly different and yielded mean values of 73.8+/-5 for the control and 72.7+/-3.9 for the test surface. In the first 2 weeks after implant installation, both groups showed only small changes and thereafter a decreasing trend in the mean ISQ levels. In the test group, after 28 days a tendency towards increasing ISQ values was observed and 42 days after surgery the ISQ values corresponded to those after implant insertion. For the SLA-control group, the trend changed after 35 days and yielded ISQ values corresponding to the baseline after 63 days. After 12 weeks of observation, the test surface yielded significantly higher stability values of 77.8+/-1.9 compared with the control implants of 74.5+/-3.9, respectively.
Conclusion: The results support the potential for chemical modification of the SLA surface to positively influence the biologic process of osseointegration and to decrease the healing time.