Prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk factors in US Asian Indians: results from a national study

J Diabetes Complications. May-Jun 2010;24(3):145-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2009.01.003. Epub 2009 Mar 19.

Abstract

Background: Although studies of immigrant Asian Indians in other countries show high rates of diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), no randomized, population-based studies of this rapidly growing ethnic group exist in the US.

Methods: The sample comprised 1038 randomly selected Asian Indian immigrants, aged 18 years and older at seven US sites. Prevalence of diabetes and MetS (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted means) was estimated and ANOVA was used to calculate gender and group differences (normoglycemia/impaired fasting glucose/diabetes) for CVD risk factors.

Results: The mean age was 48.2 years. The majority of respondents were male, married, educated, and with some form of health insurance. Prevalence of diabetes was 17.4%, and 33% of the respondents had prediabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors, especially high levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein, and low levels of HDL cholesterol, were also prevalent; elevated lipoprotein(a) was not observed. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 26.9% by the original NCEP/ATP III criteria, 32.7% by the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria, and 38.2% by the IDF criteria. The MetS rates for women, but not for men, increased with age using all three criteria. There was a progressive worsening of all metabolic parameters as individuals progressed from normal to IFG to diabetes.

Conclusion: The prevalence rates of diabetes and MetS among US Asian Indians are higher than reported in earlier, nonrandomized, smaller surveys. These data provide a firm basis for future mechanistic and interventional studies.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Asian Americans
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Waist Circumference
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Triglycerides
  • Homocysteine
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Cholesterol