Metabolic surgery and gut hormones - a review of bariatric entero-humoral modulation

Physiol Behav. 2009 Jul 14;97(5):620-31. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.03.012. Epub 2009 Mar 20.


The global pandemic of obesity is increasing. Inappropriate food intake relative to energy expenditure results in increased adiposity. These factors are partly regulated by signals through the gut-brain and adipose-brain axes. Metabolic operations (otherwise known as Bariatric surgery) offer the most effective results for sustained metabolic improvement and weight loss. They modulate a number of gut hormones that constitute the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes the literature to-date reporting the gut hormone changes associated with these operations and their subsequent effects on appetite. Understanding the anatomical differences between each operation and how these can differentially regulate gut hormonal release can provide new treatments and targets for obesity, appetite and metabolic disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appetite / physiology
  • Bariatric Surgery / methods*
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Obesity / surgery*


  • Gastrointestinal Hormones